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Using ftp in Linux

FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. It is a very simple and useful protocol which allows its users to transfer files between computers.

ftp (in lower case) is a program that allows you to transfer your files between computers.

FTP is used by almost all webmasters. They mostly use it to upload their file to the server and to back up the sites locally.

In this article, we would see how it is used in Linux/Unix systems. ftp program comes along with most Linux distributions. So you don't have to worry about downloading, installing, etc.

Running ftp

Cookie Problems

Having problems with cookies or want to learn about cookies? You have come to the right place.

What is a cookie?
A cookie is a small text string that resides somewhere on the client?s computer. A cookie is set by a server and usually contains some small piece of data which is important or useful for the server. When a page on the server is called, the server can instruct the browser to send the cookie along with the requests.

What is a cookie used for?

MySQL column enumeration - Enum()


You are building a database and you have a field that can accept only certain responses. For example, there is a Gender column which accepts only M or F as values.


Gender ENUM('M','F') not null

This means, the columns can take only one of the values explicitly listed in the column specification. Either F or M.

ENUM allows you to specify a restricted set of values the column can hold.

Multiple character values are also allowed.

Gender ENUM('Male','Female') not null

Complete Example
Create a table:


cookies and headers

One of the most frustrating problems I ever had with PHP was with with headers. I was writng some authentication code which would verify login password combination. If the combination is erroneous, I include a standard relogin page with a message. Otherwise I wanted to set a cookie and included another page.

This is where I was getting the following warning:

Warning: Cannot add header information - headers already sent

You are supposed to get this error if you try to call header() or setcookie() after a header has been called. A header is called with:



PHP - String Encryption

If you want to know how to encrypt a string in PHP, then you have come to the right place.

The easiest way to encrypt a string is to use the crypt() function. There are only 2 things you need to know:


How to encrypt a string

How to match an encrypted string

Encrypting a String

To encrypt a string, you have to do the following.

$password = "password";
$encryptedPassword = crypt($password);

If you want to see the encrypted string, print $encryptedPassword.

Matching an Encrypted String

SSH - installing and using

SSH stands for Secure Shell. To access a remote Linux/Unix system, you can use either telnet or SSH. The problem with telnet is that your telnet session is visible in plain text on your local network and the local network of the machine you are connected to. SSH works like a telnet but it encrypts the data being sent. SSH programs are available for every major operating systems.
Downloading, installing, using a SSH client on Windows

Converting *.doc to *.pdf

A document with a .doc extension is a Microsoft Word document. A document with a .pdf extension is an Adobe Acrobat document. Microsoft Word is the most popular word processor and pdf is the standard for publishing printable documents over the Internet.


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